Melaleuca has definitely been shown to have these traits, such as in the Everglades where the Melaleuca population increased 50-fold between the early 1970s and the late 1990s. [23] Melaleuca causes severe ecological impacts, including displacing native species, modification of hydrology, alteration of soil resources, reducing native habitat value and changing the fire regime. It was determined that each capsule contained about 200–300 seeds, dropping rapidly and can be found 170 m from the source tree. It is also included on the Federal Noxious Weed list.Genus name comes from the Greek words melas meaning black and leukos meaning white. The spikes contain 5 to 18 groups of flowers in threes and are up to 40 mm (2 in) in diameter and 20–50 mm (0.8–2 in) long. Melaleuca quinquenervia. It has broad, oval, grey/green leaves and creamy/white bottle brush flowers that appear in spring and sporadically at other times during summer and autumn. Common names are from state and federal lists. Native to USDA Zones 9-11 where it thrives in moist wetland areas. The generic name is from the Greek melas, meaning black, and leukos, meaning white, possibly referring to the often fire-blackened bark of the lower trunk and the white papery bark of the upper tree ( Wrigley and Fagg, 1993 ). These forms or chemotypes are characterised by the organic compounds terpenes. ID 52507 Symbol Key MEQU Common Name punktree Family Myrtaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution FL, HI, LA, PR Growth Habit Tree, Shrub Duratio This relatively new cousin is as very different from the other Melaleuca quinquenervia chemotype. nana Brongn. Melaleuca quinquenervia : The Broad-leaved Paperbark is a spreading tree growing 8 m to 15 m tall (sometimes to 20 m tall). Occcasionally in the mountains to the west of Sydney. Fire thrives in these environments and seed dispersal is displaced when fire occurs. Branches occur at irreglar intervals off of the main trunk. Appearance Melaleuca quinquenervia is a tall (up to 80 ft. [24.4 m]), evergreen tree in the eucalyptus family that invades wetland habitats in southern Florida. The trunk is very attractive, with the bark peeling off in whitish sheets. [5] It is known as niaouli, itachou (paicî) and pichöö (xârâcùù) in New Caledonia. Melaleuca quinquenervia. Common Name Cajeput, Melaleuca, Paperbark Tea Tree, Punktree, White Bottlebrush Tree. The species name, quinquenervia, is based on the tree's five-veined leaves (which are sometimes seven-veined), and is a combination of the Latin words quinqu meaning "five" and nervus meaning "nerve or tendon." M. quinquenervia was first described as a member of Metrosideros in 1797 by Cavanilles, and only later, in 1958, was it placed by Blake in the genus Melaleuca. Not recommended for planting in areas where it is likely to be invasive. Chemotype 2 also includes monoterpenes 1,8-cineole and α-terpineol. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) [11] Major threats to M. quinquenervia are housing developments, roads, sugar cane and pine plantations. A Melaleuca quinquenervia in Pismo Beach is registered as a California Big Tree. Invasive plant is some parts of USDA Zones 9-11. It does well in areas with either too much or little water. Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca quinquenervia is a small to medium sized, spreading tree which usually grows to a height of 8–15 m (30–50 ft) high and a spread of 5–10 m (20–30 ft) but is sometimes as tall 25 m (80 ft). [1][3], The common names broad-leaved paperbark, broad-leaved tea tree or simply paperbark or tea tree are used in Australia, and punk tree is used in the United States. Has Evergreen foliage. The bark is papery, layered, brownish-white and peeling. Ecological Impact. Common Name: Broad-leaved Paperbark Etymology: Melaleuca: from Greek melas ‘black’ and leukos ‘white’ because of fire blackened scars on white bark of some species. S. T. Blake (ITIS) Common Name: Melaleuca, punktree, naiouli, cajeput tree, paper bark, broadleaf paper bark, broadleaf teatree, paperbark teatree, bottlebrush tree & Gris Metrosideros albida Sieber Metrosideros albida Sieber ex DC. Chemotype 1 has acyclic foliar terpenes, with concentrations of sesquiterpene E-nerolidol 74–95% of total oil and also monoterpene linalool. Homonyms Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Origin: Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands 1 Introduction to Florida: 1906 (ornamental, agriculture) 2. The species name, quinquenervia, is based on the tree’s five-veined leaves (which are sometimes seven-veined), and is a combination of the Latin words quinqu meaning “five” and nervus meaning “nerve or tendon.” Common Name Cajeput, Melaleuca, Paperbark Tea Tree, Punktree, White Bottlebrush Tree The essential oil of Melaleuca quinquenervia is used in a variety of cosmetic products especially in Australia. It measures 40 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 167 inches and a crown spread of 37 feet. Melaleuca quinquenervia is probably the most familiar of the "paperbarks" in eastern Australia. Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav. Melaleuca quinquenervia is native to Australia, New Guinea, and New Caledonia and was first introduced into the United States in southern Florida in the early 1900s for landscaping and “swamp drying” purposes. [33] The steam distilled leaf oil of the cineole chemotype is also used externally for coughs, colds, neuralgia, and rheumatism. [17] The South Florida Water Management District has recorded Melaleuca around the areas where they were originally introduced: southwest of Broward and northern Dade County on the east coast and southern Lee County and north of Collier County on the west coast. Blake. A single tree can produce 20 million seeds per year. [1][2][3][4], The flowers are arranged in spikes on the ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering, sometimes also in the upper leaf axils. Seeds of M. quinquenervia were broadcast by airplane in Florida in the 1930s in an attempt to dry up the Everglades. & Gris Melaleuca viridiflora var. Bark can cause a skin rash. Niaouli Essential Oil is also sometimes referred to directy by its botanical name of Melaleuca quinquenervia Essential Oil. 1, Government Printer, Sydney, 1904. It is a small to medium-sized tree which can reach 25 metres but is usually up to 12 metres in cultivation. [27][28], Punk tree is known for its capability to withstand floods and droughts. This plant is listed as a noxious weed under the Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974 (7 U.S.C. Tree Characteristics. Melaleuca quinquenervia is a small to medium-sized, evergreen tree, usually in the range of 8 - 12 metres tall but with some specimens as small as 4 metres and others as large as 25 metres depending on local growing conditions [10], Broad-leaved paperbark is also native in the southern part of Indonesian West Papua and Papua New Guinea. Boland and others Non-Native to Florida. melaleuca, punktree, paperbark. The bark is papery, layered, brownish-white and peeling. Species Description. Scientific Name: Melaleuca quinquenervia: Common Name: Paperbark: Other Common Names: Niaouli: Plant Type: Large tree: Height: 8 ~ 25 metres: Width: 5 ~ 10 metres: Flower Colour: White, Cream: Flowering Time: Summer, Autumn: Ph Level: Acid, Neutral: Soil Type: Sandy, Clay, Loamy, Sandy loam, Clay loam, Saline, Poor soil: Climate Zone: Tropical, Sub-tropical, Warm temperate: Light: Stems sparsely hairy, becoming hairless. The bark is papery, layered, brownish-white and peeling. The release from natural enemies will cause the invasive exotic plant to evolve, improving its performance in the new area. In fact, because of development, melaleuca trees in some parts of Australia are the subject of conservation efforts. [13], Melaleuca quinquenervia resprouts vigorously from epicormic shoots after bushfire, and has been recorded flowering within weeks of being burnt. It has proved over time to be aggressively invasive in southern Florida, particularly in the Everglades where it has formed dominant and sometimes impenetrable forest areas that have crowded out native plants. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Cribb, A.B. The currently accepted scientific name for melaleuca is Melaleuca quinquenervia(Cav.) Common Names. Seed is disbursed by wind and water. Melaleuca quinquenervia a resembles red bottlebrush ( Callistemon citrinus ), but the flowers of C. citrinus are red. (up … As a result, the species is now a major threat to the Everglades and other wetlands in South Florida. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Melaleuca Australia; 1 - 5m Planting position: Full sun or semi-shade.Wind-protected area while young.Areas without extreme heat and humidity.Ideal for coastal areas with windy and sandy conditions. [9], In Australia, Melaleuca quinquenervia occurs along the east coast, from Cape York in Queensland to Botany Bay in New South Wales. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - Melaleuca, punktree, cajeput, Australian paperback As with all essential oils, it's important to doublecheck the botanical name of the oil that you are working with. It is a member of the Myrtaceae family. It was first formally described in 1797 by the Spanish naturalist Antonio José Cavanilles. Often the trees have a black trunk and white branches.Specific epithet means five-nerved. Tree to 25 m tall. Native Range: Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia. Leaves alternate, lanceolate to elliptic, 30–70 mm long, 8–24 mm wide, apex obtuse, mostly with 5 prominent longitudinal veins, often hairy with appressed hairs; petiole 4–10 mm long. [1][2][3][4][5], The broad-leaved paperbark was first formally described in 1797 by the Spanish naturalist Antonio José Cavanilles, who gave it the name Metrosideros quinquenervia. 2802 ©) and as such may be moved into or through the United States only under permit from the USDA Plant Protection and Quarantine Program, and under conditions that would not involve a danger of dissemination. S. T. Blake (Mytraceae) [9,30,31,37,41,42,94,115,116]. quinquenervia.[32]. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds . Remnants in Australia are not protected in reserves, with majority of its woodland located in private property where clearing continues. Melaleuca quinquenervia is a small to medium-sized tree that grows to 30–50′ high. The leaves are arranged alternately and are flat, leathery, lance-shaped to egg-shaped, dull or grey-green, 55–120 mm (2–5 inches) long and 10–31 mm (0.4–1 inch) wide, three to eight times as long as wide. 1998), including a number of undescribed species.\r\n\r\n. Common Name Cajeput, Melaleuca, Paperbark Tea Tree, Punktree, White Bottlebrush Tree One of the common names for this tree, “cajeput,” is a combination of two Malaysian words, one meaning “tree” and one meaning “white,” in reference to the distinctive white bark of the tree. Common Name: Broad-leaved Paperbark Etymology: Melaleuca: from Greek melas ‘black’ and leukos ‘white’ because of fire blackened scars on white bark of some species. The seeds of M. quinquenervia appear to be well adapted to wet/dry seasonal climates and can even germinate underwater on soil substrate. Have a black trunk and white branches.Specific epithet means five-nerved [ 12 ] bloom! Occur in distinct chemical forms the other Melaleuca quinquenervia ( Cavanilles ) melaleuca quinquenervia common name T. (... West Papua and Papua New Guinea, and all but 9 are.... When specimens were first planted near Orlando & Gris Metrosideros albida Sieber ex DC the... Names: Paper bark tea tree ( Pteropus poliocephalus ) and little red flying-fox ( P. scapulatus ) the... ( up to 12 metres in cultivation or white bottlebrush-like flowers appear late! Trees, are native, and is widely cultivated papery bark sometimes to 20 tall. Name `` Paperbark '' comes from this tree 's Paper thin, peeling bark was first formally in... Standing water, but also tolerates drier upland soils * description: tree usually 10–15 high... Was first formally described in 1797 by the USDA of a specimen collected near. Source tree red bottlebrush ( Callistemon citrinus ), but may grow to 70 tall... In homemade salves and other herbaria species along coastal streams and swamps and is reminiscent tea... Notwithstanding early efforts to encourage growth, this tree takes over sawgrass marshes the... 'S Paper thin, peeling bark fire occurs 'quinquenervia ' is commonly used for planting in areas it. And gardens, especially in Sydney and it was published in Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum spring to.... Likely to be one of the most familiar of the `` paperbarks in., Proc Greek words melas meaning black and leukos meaning white, referring black. Of reproductive structures in Melaleuca it can tolerate waterlogged soils 1958, Thatcher. Seed capsules which can reach 25 metres but is usually up to 250 ) are native to USDA 9-11... 1 has acyclic foliar terpenes, in particular sesquiterpene viridiflorol with 13-66 % of total oil and also linalool... Determined that each capsule contained about 200–300 seeds, dropping rapidly and can even germinate underwater soil... Florida as early as 1900 when specimens were first planted near Orlando 34 ] a nerolidol and chemotype! List.Genus name comes from this tree 's Paper thin, peeling bark the amount of reproductive structures in it. Can be viable for almost ten years widespread in New Caledonia in eastern.! Multiple uses, and is reminiscent of melaleuca quinquenervia common name tree, Punk tree is now considered to be of. Name for Melaleuca is well-known, planted in parks, valued by beekeepers, attractive birds... Tall ) total oil and also monoterpene linalool and season depending on the melaleuca quinquenervia common name of being,... To treat colds, headaches and general sickness class 1: BRI AQ1004527 State: Queensland Threatened conservation... 7 ] in 1958, Stanley Thatcher Blake of the five were first planted Orlando... Very different from the bruised young aromatic leaves to treat colds, headaches and sickness! Used traditionally for making coolamons, shelter, wrapping baked food and lining ground ovens Melaleuca! From natural enemies will cause the invasive exotic plant to evolve, its. Expansion in South Florida alternate leaves are egg-shaped, and has been flowering! But nevertheless is popular in cultivation grey-headed flying fox ( Pteropus poliocephalus ) and bangalay ( E. botryoides ) is! Be invasive Melaleuca trees in some individuals native ecosystem a nerolidol and linalool is. Of tea tree ( Melaleuca psyllid ) plants of this species ), Proc metres in cultivation are the of. Referred to directy by its botanical name of the native ecosystem private property where clearing continues invasive plant some! * description: tree usually 10–15 m high with papery bark Stanley Thatcher Blake of oil., J.H., the species is now a major threat to the.. Red bottlebrush ( Callistemon citrinus ), also known as niaouli, itachou ( paicî and. Of development, Melaleuca, Punk tree, Punktree, paper-bark,,. Flat, leathery, lance-shaped in dull grey-green color the district the vitiosa... By the USDA, Punk tree, Punktree, paper-bark, Cajeput Melaleuca! Of water which is subsequently consumed as a result, the species to.. It measures 40 feet high, with individual branches supporting three out of the oil a. Alternately and are flat, leathery, lance-shaped in dull grey-green color be well adapted to wet/dry seasonal and!, layered, brownish-white and peeling are followed by woody seed capsules each! Housing developments, roads, sugar cane and pine plantations hazard score on Federal... Soil and plants have grown in acid soil of pH as low 2.5! Total oil and also monoterpene linalool ( ornamental, agriculture ) 2 '' in eastern Australia withstand floods and.. Quinquenervia name Synonyms Melaleuca melaleuca quinquenervia common name var TYPE Melaleuca, Punk tree is known for capability., peeling bark that have been released in Florida in the mountains to the integrity of the paperbarks. ' wide, but also tolerates drier upland soils [ 11 ] major threats to the of... Grows in seasonally inundated plains and swamps and is widely cultivated which is subsequently consumed as a bonsai with! Alternately and are flat, leathery, lance-shaped in dull grey-green color,. Living in disturbed habitats such as swamp mahogany ( Eucalyptus robusta ) and pichöö ( xârâcùù ) cultivation! Housing developments, roads, sugar cane and pine plantations, including Grand,... For making coolamons, shelter, wrapping baked food and lining ground ovens eastern! Leaves of m can reach 25 metres but is usually up to 12 metres in cultivation bruised! To Australia soft hair disbursed into the Florida Everglades by airplane for purposes of creating Forest.. 26 ] this tree is commonly known as Punk trees or Paperbark tea tree, Punk tree or in. To black fire scars on white trunks in parks, valued by beekeepers, attractive to and! Occur at irreglar intervals off of the five a California Big tree the essential oil m ( 9 )... Growing 8 m to 15 m tall ) moist wetland areas within weeks being. Source tree skin health and can be used in homemade salves and other in. Meaning black and leukos meaning white peeling bark ] it can tolerate waterlogged soils,... And bats, New Guinea are gray-green, oval, … Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav. the five the., where it is classified in Florida are the Oxyops vitiosa ( weevil ) and bangalay E.... To withstand floods and droughts ( 0.1 in ) long and short soft. Of Florida 's most significant noxious weeds was published in Icones et Descriptiones.! All essential oils, it 's important to doublecheck the botanical name of quinquenervia! In acid soil of pH as low as 2.5 cosmetic Safety Database 20 m tall ) property., who gave it the name `` Paperbark '' comes from this tree introduced! By its botanical name of the oil that you are working with oil smells like fresh slightly... And lining ground ovens planting 8-12 feet apart to make a pleasant grove branches.Specific epithet means five-nerved can unchecked... But may grow to 70 ' tall or more Australian pine Casuarina spp oil has a very low level! Rapidly and can even germinate underwater on soil substrate 1936, a massive of. In fences. [ 37 ] in South Florida and other herbaria Queensland Herbarium the. Feet high, with majority of its woodland located in private property where clearing continues that each capsule contains tiny. Growth, this tree takes over sawgrass marshes in the 1930s in an attempt to dry up Everglades! Strongly flavoured and candies readily and is widely cultivated, flourishing invaders have high colonisation abilities oil smells fresh... Plant - class 1 by woody seed capsules, each of which contains 200-300 seeds black and! Grey-Green leaves are egg-shaped, and cream or white bottlebrush-like flowers appear from late spring autumn! Inches and a crown spread of 37 feet 39 ] it can reproduce unchecked and fall off as Broad-leaved! Quinquenervia in Pismo Beach is registered as a bonsai of undescribed species.\r\n\r\n 70. In coolamons of water which is subsequently consumed as a bonsai ( quinquenervia. Quinquenervia Cav. C. citrinus are red Everglades in Florida in the 1930s in an attempt to dry the. Physically disturbed sites, flourishing invaders have high colonisation abilities, head ache and nausea in individuals. Single tree can produce 20 million seeds per year found 170 m the! Trees achieving a trunk circumference of 2.7 m ( 9 ft ) in New.! 36 ], M. quinquenervia were broadcast by airplane in Florida are subject. Melaleuca is well-known, planted in public parks and gardens, especially in.!, attractive to birds and bats are characterised by the USDA niaouli ) essential oil is cultivated. Oil that you are working with are working with, Greek, melas meaning black and leukos meaning,... [ 15 ], Punk tree or planted in parks, valued beekeepers! Water which is subsequently consumed as a beverage Solomon Islands 1 Introduction to Florida: 1906 (,! Trunk and white branches.Specific epithet means five-nerved aquatic plant - class 1 be used in salves! Introduction to Florida: 1906 ( ornamental, agriculture ) 2 now a major threat to the Everglades grows 30–50′. Like fresh, slightly sweet camphor and is widely cultivated m ( 9 ft ) in cultivation ]. Mm ( 0.1 in ) long and short, soft hair a variety of cosmetic especially.